*Risk Factors Associated with Non-
communicable Diseases.*
A non-communicable disease is a disease that
cannot spread to any other
person in a community from a person who has it;
it remains with the person
who has it.
Heredity can play a role in a person acquiring a
non-communicable but it
remains within the family.
*1.Tobacco use*Smokers die about 10 years
earlier than never-smokers, they
have twice the risk of heart disease, 10 times
the risk of lung cancer,
several times the risk of cancer of the mouth,
throat, oesophagus,
pancreas, cervix, kidney and bladder.
The following health problems also occur more in
smokers:-stroke, peptic
ulcers, fractures and cataract.
Nicotine, one of the major constituents of
cigarette smoke is highly
addictive and produces withdrawal symptoms if
discontinued. This is what
makes it difficult for smokers to quit.
*2.Alcohol consumption*While alcohol may have
some benefits when taken in
moderation, the risks of alcohol abuse are
numerous. Virtually every organ
of the body can be affected by excessive
alcoholic intake with many deaths
resulting from accidents, respiratory failure and
breathing in of vomit.
Alcoholism causes a lot of embarrassment to
the immediate family due to
violent behaviour which follows alcohol abuse
and loss of consciousness in
most embarrassing locations.
The problems of excessive alcohol consumption
include Accidents/Violence,
Cirrhosis of the Liver, Cancerof the liver, throat,
mouth, stomach,
intestines and breast, Heart Disease/High Blood
Pressure/Stroke,
Obesity,Impotence and Reduction of Body
Resistance.
Alcohol damages the heart muscles which can
lead to heart failure. It also
raises blood pressure, disorganizes heart beat
and can cause stroke.
*3.Raised blood pressure*Untreated raised blood
pressure can lead to heart
disease, heart failure, kidney failure or/and
stroke.
*4.High cholesterol*High cholesterol levels due
largely to improper diet
can lead to heart and blood vessel diseases.
Unmanaged, heart attack,
stroke and other conditions can result.
*5.Fatness*Obesity is associated with diabetes
mellitus. Obesity increases
resistance of body cells to the agent (insulin)
which controls blood sugar.
This situation eventually leads to high blood
sugar- a condition known as
diabetes. Obesity is also associated with heart
and blood vessel diseases,
also diseases of the joints.
*6.Physical inactivity*Physical inactivity has
been associated with high
blood pressure, heart disease, blood vessel
disease, cancers, fatness,
stress and joint diseases. These are all non-
communicable diseases.
*7.Environment*Your environment is in three
parts:- physical (air, soil and
water), biological (plant and animals including
the disease carrying germs)
and social.
Air pollution is involved in several non-
communicable diseases like cancers
and lung diseases.
Occupation also plays a big role in non-
communicable diseases such as
cancer of the bladder, cancer of the lungs and
some cases of poisoning.
*8.Life Style*Life style refers to alcohol intake,
cigarette smoking,
physical exercise, diet, vacations, number of
hours of sleep, bedtime,
socialization etc.
Published By Transcon Healthcare Ltd

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