Food is any substance humans, animals or plants eat/take in for energy, growth and life maintenance. Examples of food include yam, garri, semolina, banana, apples, meat and fish.

 
On the other hand, nutrients are components of food; that means food contains nutrients. There are six nutrients (carbohydrates, protein, lipids (fats and oils), water, minerals and vitamins) but a particular food may not contain all the nutrients hence we are advised to take a mixture of foods so as to get all the nutrients.
 
The six nutrients referred to above are split into two groups: Macronutrients (carbohydrates, protein, lipids [fats and oils] and water) and Micronutrients (vitamins and minerals)
 
Once food is eaten by man, the nutrients contained in it undergo different processes of digestion and absorption in the body.
 
Lipids (fats and oils)) are organic compounds that do not dissolve in water but do so in organic solvents such as chloroform and ether. At room temperature; when in solid form, lipids are called fats but in liquid form they are called oils.
There are three nutritionally important classes of lipids:-Triglyceride, Phospholipids and Sterols. 
Cholesterol is a sterol.
The simplest form of lipids is fatty acid; also lipids can be saturated, trans or unsaturated;
Unsaturated fat is either monounsaturated or poly unsaturated. Daily fat intake should not exceed 35 percent of total daily calorie requirement which is about 2000Kcals; of this 35 percent, saturated fat should contribute only 11 percent (unsaturated fat-24 percent, saturated fat—11 percent). 
One gram of every type of lipid (fat and oil) gives about 9Kcals of energy; in Britain the daily recommended total lipid consumption is 95 grams for men and 70 grams for women; of this, maximum saturated fat is 30 grams for men and 20 grams for women.  
 
Every food contains saturated and unsaturated fat, while some contain trans fat as well; in general animal food contains more saturated fat than unsaturated fat while plant food contains more unsaturated fat than saturated fat. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Simply put, saturated fat and trans fat are said to be unhealthy fat while unsaturated fat is said to be healthy fat
 
Functions of lipids include provision of energy, holds body organs and nerves in position, maintenance of body temperature, palatability of food, absorption and transportation of some vitamins and formation of hormones among others. 
 
Since we must eat food containing fat, we must try to exclude foods that contain unhealthy fats (saturated and trans fats) from our diet to protect our heart and blood vessels. Below is a list of some of such foods.
 
1. Fatty cuts of meat
Fatty cuts of pigs, beef (meat of cattle {cows, bulls, oxen}) and lamb (young sheep) contain plenty of saturated fat and should be excluded from our diet as much as possible. Go for lean cuts which contain very little fat.
 
2. Poultry skin
The skin of chicken, turkey and other birds is rich in cholesterol; this you already know increases our risk of diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Always remove the skin before eating any bird (chicken, turkey etc), the temptation to eat it is great but do not. 
 
3. High fat dairy foods (whole milk, cheese, ice cream etc)
Some dairy products such as whole milk, butter, cheese and ice cream have plenty of saturated fat which increases our risk of heart disease. Use avocado or peanut butter as bread spread and used low fat or skimmed milk for your tea or other beverages. 
 
4. Tropical fruit oils (coconut oil, palm oil, cocoa butter)
Oils such as palm oil, coconut oil and cocoa butter contain plenty of saturated fat which is bad for the heart and blood vessels. Palm oil is quite popular in a country like Nigeria where it is used by a majority of the population for cooking.
 
5. Lard
Lard is pig fat, usually taken from the adipose tissue of the pig. It can be rendered (treated) or un-rendered) before use. It contains saturated fatty acids; it can be used as cooking oil, as bread spread, in preparing pastries etc.  
 
6. Processed foods 
Processed foods such as cakes, cookies, muffin, pastries, pizzas, bread rolls, buns, French fries and crackers contain trans fat which increases blood cholesterol level and hence dangerous to the heart.
The trans fat results from partial conversion of liquid unsaturated fat in vegetable oils to solid saturated fat by hydrogenation which is then used in the making of the above foods.

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